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《剑桥雅思官方试卷8》写作Task2分析

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剑桥雅思官方试卷8》写作Task2分析

 

文/郑州韦沃 田伟伟

 

随着近年来不断上涨的留学、移民热潮,作为全球超过6,000所机构认可的雅思(IELTS)考试,在中国的考生人数已经突破30万。为更好地引导考生备考雅思,剑桥大学考试委员会在时隔两年之后,于2011年4月在中国全球同步推出了《剑桥雅思官方试卷8》,为今后两年的考生在试题难易程度和题型变化方面指明了方向。

雅思写作考试,一直以来是海内外中国考生取得理想分数的绊脚石,尤其是近期出现在TASK 2中的抽象试题和多变的问题形式,让很多考生摸不着头脑。而《剑8》提供的六套写作真题,在帮助考生把握答题思路方面,起到了很好的作用。通过对《剑8》大作文的分析,我们从中获取如下信息:

 

一、       话题类型涉及面广且问题形式多样

《剑8》涉及题目类型更加广泛,包括了教育、科技、环境和社会等主流题型,那么这四类题目也应作为考生复习备考的重点。同时,《剑8》的问题形式也较以往更加多样,这些问题类型也在以往的考试中出现过,如2011年3月12日A类考生回忆试题:Competitiveness is a positive quality for people in most societies. How does this affect individuals? Is it a positive or negative development? 以及2010年1月23日G类考生回忆试题:An increasing number of people are moving and living in big cities. Why is this case? Is it a positive or negative development? 等。《剑8》题目归类及答题框架建议,如图:

 

A/G

话题

《剑8》Task 2问题形式

答题框架

Test 1

教育类

Some people think that parents should teach children how to be good members of society. Others, however, believe that school is the place to learn this. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

Introduction

Parents

School

Personal opinion

Test 2

科技类

Nowadays the way many people interact with each other has changed because of technology. In what ways has technology affected the types of relationships people make? Has this become a positive or negative development?

Introduction

Ways

Positive/negative

Conclusion

Test 3

环境类

Increasing the price of petrol is the best way to solve growing traffic and pollution problems. To what extend do you agree or disagree? What other measures do you think might be effective?

Introduction

Disagree

Measures

Conclusion

Test 4

社会类

In some countries the average weight of people is increasing and their levels of health and fitness are decreasing. What do you think are the causes of these problems and what measures could be taken to solve them?

Introduction

Causes

Measures

Conclusion

Test A

社会类

Today more people are travelling than ever before. Why is this the case? What are the benefits of travelling for the traveler?

Introduction

Cause

Benefits

Conclusion

Test B

教育类

Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in separate schools. Others, however, believe that boys and girls benefit more from attending mixed schools. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

Introduction

Separate schools

Mixed schools

Conclusion

 

答题框架,即文章的结构布局,是大作文考察的重点之一,也是文章逻辑性的体现。在这方面,要特别提醒考生:1、《剑8》Test3的第一问侧重要求考生回答disagree,这样才能顺利成章回答第二问,具体参加《剑7》Test B考官范文;2、Task 2属于Discursive Essay,所以考生在答题时无论支持哪一方面,都需要论述自己不支持的一个方面。这意味着纯粹的“一边倒”文章结构是不符合雅思写作要求的。在分段论述方面,考生可参看下表:

 

主要问题类型

答题架构(双边讨论+单边论述)

辩论类/问题解决类

双边

参见

单边

参见

Discuss both sides and give your own opinion.

《剑8》P163

 

 

Do you agree or disagree?

To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?

What are the advantages and disadvantages?

Is it a positive or negative development/trend?

 

 

 

 

《剑6》P172;

《剑5》P165

What do you think are the causes of these problems and what measures could be taken to solve them?

问题解决型题目:不分“单、双边”论述,答题框架参见《剑5》P173

 

二、      

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

文章开头段(Introduction照抄题目部分不计入总字数

考官在《剑8》Test 2中给考生答卷(Band 5.5)的评语中指出,“The topic introduction has been copied from the task and is deducted from the word count. This leaves the answer underlength at 236 words, so the candidates loses marks for this”。这篇文章得5.5分的主要原因是去除开头段照抄题目的字数后,文章总字数不够250个单词。

因字数不够导致分数只有5分的文章在《剑7》的Test 4里也曾出现过,考官的评语是“This answer is less than 250 words and it does not address all parts of the question, so it loses marks”。

留心的考生可能会发现,在写作答题纸最后一页的右下方有一个表格。当考官判断文章字数不够时,会查出具体字数并填入第二个空格,最后根据缺少的字数量进行扣分,如图:

 

UNDERLENGTH

 

NO OF

WORDS

 

PENALTY

 

    

2008年1月,剑桥大学考试委员会出版了题为“The IELTS Writing Assessment Revision Project: Towards a revised rating scale”的研究报告,在经过测评组对字数不够的答卷分析研究之后,提出了对于字数不够应如何扣分的建议,考生可以作为参考:

 

Task 2:Academic and General Training

No. Words

Band Level Ceiling

<50

2

51-100

3

101-200

4

201-240

5

 

三、       《剑8》考官范文学术化

 根据官方资料显示,Task2应以正式(Academic style)或半正式(Semi-formal/neutral style) 的风格来完成答卷。《剑8》学术类考官范文很好地体现了学术类文体的写作风格,这也是考生在备考过程中需要掌握并运用的。具体学术写作风格如下:

 

1、委婉表达(tentative statements)

    委婉表达主要体现在“可能性”词汇的使用上,在《剑8》考官范文中,这些词汇包括:be (more) likely to

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