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读《当代西方翻译理论选读》

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读《当代西方翻译理论选读》



一、《当代西方翻译理论选读》之作者-马会娟/苗菊



马会娟

北京外国语大学英语学院教师

学 位: 博士

任教课程:笔译,商务翻译, 学术论文写作,汉英文化比较与翻译

职 称:教授

教师简介:

英语学院副教授,为本科生开设汉英笔译和为翻译方向研究开设学术论文写作课和汉英文化比较与翻译



海外经历:

2008年7月到8月于英国兰开斯特大学作短期访学;

2005年1月至2005年12月在英国爱丁堡大学文学、语言和文化学院从事博士后研究,并给亚洲学院中文系的本科生讲授中国文化。



研究课题:

研究工作围绕着翻译教学与理论研究展开,包括翻译理论与实践,西方当代翻译理论,实务翻译与教学。当前从事的研究课题为北京外国语大学211三期立项项目“汉译英能力研究”、商务翻译理论与实践

出 版 物:

自1999年以来已经发表专著一部,教程两部,有独到见解的论文二十五篇,十余篇发表于核心刊物、或CSSCI期刊以及国际学术期刊BABEL 、META。



主要专著、译著、编著包括:

1. 编著《当代西方翻译理论选读》(约40万字)外语教学与研究出版社2009年4月出版。

2.教程《商务英语翻译教程》(主编)(约22万字)中国商务出版社 2004年8月出版。

3.学术专著《奈达翻译理论研究》(约20万字)由外语教学与研究出版社2003年9月出版。

4.学术译著《重塑梭罗》(约25万字),2002年1月东方出版社出版。

5.编著《<新编大学英语>同步辅导》(主编),国防工业出版社2003年9月出版。

6.编著《破解大学英语四级新题型》(主编),清华大学出版社2006年10月出版。



主要论文包括:

1. Representation of Aesthetic Values in Literary Translation(英文)Meta 2010年 2期(in press)

2.《重释林译浮生六记》载《跨文化传播研究》2009年6月 (第1作者)

3.《当代西方翻译能力研究模式述评》载《北外外语学刊》2009年4月

4. On the Representation of Aesthetic Values of Jin Di’s Chinese Version of Ulysses(英文)载《认识爱尔兰:历史遗产与文化》外语教学与研究出版社2009年出版。

5.《Rosemary Arrojo的后现代主义翻译思想概述》(第2作者)载《外语教学》(增刊)2008年

6.《论汉英翻译的标准:有条件的忠实》载《解放军外国语学院学报》2008年2期。

7.Exploring Differences between Jin Di’s Translation Theory and Eugene A. Nida’s Theory . (英文)Babel Volume 53 No2 (2007).

8.《对中国翻译理论研究五十年的思考》载《甘肃社会科学》2006年2期

9.《对西方翻译理论家Lawrence Venuti的异化翻译理论的再思考》载《天津外国语学院学报》2006年1期

10.《论商务文本翻译标准的多元化》载《中国翻译》 2005年3期

11.《一次商务翻译实习的启示》载《商务英语研究论文集》高等教育出版社2004年

12.《论动态表演性原则在英译<茶馆>中的应用》载《解放军外国语学院学报》2004年5期

13.《论汉语广告英译变通的必要性》载《外国语言文学研究》2004年3期

14.《译文千古事,得失寸心知——试析霍译<红楼梦>(第一卷)风格的走失》载《红楼译评》《〈红楼梦〉翻译研究论文集》南开大学出版社2004年8月

15.《扩展比喻翻译探析》载《外语与外语教学》 2003年12期(第2作者)

16.《试析霍译<红楼梦>(第一卷)不足之处》载《解放军外国语学院学报》2003年1期(第2作者)

17.《当代西方翻译研究概况》载《中国翻译》 2001年2期

18.《中国翻译学论争根源之我见》载《外语与外语教学》 2001年9期

19.《一部介绍近十年来西方翻译理论的书》载《福建外语》2001年3期

20.《一个乐于汉译英的人》载《中国翻译》2000年4期

21.《从符号学看商标词的翻译》载《上海科技翻译》2000年第4期(第2作者)

22.《试论中国翻译学》载《天津外国语学院学报》2000年3期

23.《霍译<红楼梦>中美学价值的再现》载《外语与翻译》 1999年3期

24.《关于中国翻译理论研究的发展前景》载《外语教学》 1999年4期

25.《对奈达的等效翻译理论的再思考》载《外语研究》1999年3期



散文翻译

1.《个人资历与总统竞选有什么关系》(约2300)载《英语世界》2007年8期

2.《他们为何挑战比尔?克林顿?》(2600)载《英语世界》2007年5期

3. 《布什政权的阴霾》载(2700)《英语世界》2007年3期

4.《美食天地》栏目翻译载《汉语世界》创刊号、1期、2期

5.《胖子与瘦子》载《汉英英汉美文翻译与鉴赏》(刘士聪著)译林出版社2002年。



主持或参与的科研项目:

1.参与2003年——2005年教育部人文社科重点研究基地重大科研项目《基于英汉平行语料库的英语学习词典的研编》。该项目主持人为北京外国语大学中国外语教育研究中心博士生导师陈国华教授。

2.已经完成的项目有北京外国语大学“十一五211工程”标志性项目“英语专业核心知识课程教材系列”立项项目《翻译理论入门》,以及北京外国语大学个人自选项目《翻译理论与实践探索》。

3. 当前正在从事的研究课题为北京外国语大学211三期立项项目“汉译英能力研究”、“商务翻译理论与实践”

4.目前负责北京外国语大学翻译系的课程立项两项:应用文翻译、商务翻译

5.正在从事的研究生教材项目为北京外国语大学 “211”工程三期创新人才培养项目精品教材《汉英文化比较与翻译》





苗菊
苗菊,南开大学外国语学院英语系教授,博士后,博士生导师,北京外国语大学兼职研究员。“翻译理论与实践”精品课建设项目负责人。1988年在南开大学获语言学硕士学位,2002年在南开大学获翻译学博士学位,2005年在美国印第安纳大学比较文学系作为研究学者完成翻译学博士后研究,2008年在加拿大约克大学翻译学院作为访问学者进行认知方法翻译研究、翻译教学研究。苗菊教授,博士在学期间师从刘士聪教授,并受教于崔永禄教授、常耀信教授,全面学习了翻译理论与实践,文学翻译。博士论文重点研究:翻译过程与译者。

在美国印第安纳大学比较文学系,苗菊教授师从美国当届译协主席、著名文学翻译家布瑞昂-米切尔(Breon Mitchell) 教授,进行了翻译教学和翻译能力发展的博士后项目研究,得到印第安纳大学副校长办公室科研处特别科研资助,博士后证书,并受到导师米切尔教授、印第安纳大学比较文学系主任格伯特-柴特恩(Gilbert Chaitin)教授、印第安纳大学国际交流处主任、现任副校长帕垂克-奥米拉 (Patrick O’Meara) 教授的高度评价。

在加拿大约克大学翻译学院,苗菊教授师从国际翻译领域知名学者、认知方法、实证翻译研究领先学者坎德斯-塞吉诺(Candace Séguinot)教授,系统学习认知方法翻译研究、实证翻译研究、翻译专业教学研究以及本科生、硕士生课程设置研究。

苗菊教授主要研究方向:

当代西方翻译理论、翻译过程实证研究、翻译教学研究。

现正教授的课程有:翻译理论与实践、当代西方翻译理论、当代西方翻译理论选读、翻译研究方法论、翻译名篇赏析。、





二、《当代西方翻译理论选读》



(以下几栏是我曾经读本书所做的笔记和总结,但目前手中只有第一章关于NIDA的翻译观的读书笔记。请各位同学不要仅仅把重点放在第一章,各章都是重点。值得注意的一点是:我仔细研究翻译学专业-翻译理论与实践近几年试题,总结出理论部分出题的规律,即总-分(即可称之为:散-细)。具体来讲,面对七个学派,自由选择一个进行释述其翻译观,或是具体到哪个学派,要求对其翻译观作答,或甚至具体到某个学派之某个翻译家的翻译观点等具体的东西。以下分为两部分:全书总纲和第一章关于Eugene Nida之翻译观。)



总纲



对于翻译系/翻译学院的学生,最好是读“原汁原味”的英文材料,从而准确理解西方翻译理论的概念、术语。
本书主要选取自20世纪60年代以来有代表性、有影响的当代西方翻译理论流派的论文或理论著作,共计十六篇,分七个单元,依次是:


1.语言学派(Liguistic):
奈达(Nida)的动态对等翻译理论
纽马克(Newmark)的语义翻译与交际翻译
纽伯特(Neubert)的语篇翻译。

2.功能学派(Functionalist):
弗米尔(Vermeer)的翻译目的论
诺德(Nord)的功能加忠诚翻译观

3.描写学派(Dscriptive):
佐哈尔(Even-Zohar)的多元系统论
图里(Toury)的描写翻译研究
勒菲弗尔(Lefevere)的翻译改写理论

4.文化学派(Cutural Studies):
韦努蒂(Venuti)异化翻译策略
弗罗托(Flotow)的女性主义翻译研究
罗宾逊(Robinson)的后殖民翻译研究

5.翻译的哲学取向派 (Philosophical):
斯坦纳(Steiner)的翻译阐释观
德里达(Dedrria)解构主义翻译观

6.认知学派(Cognitive):
格特(Gutt)的关联翻译理论

7.翻译实证研究(Empirical Research in Translation Studies):
贝克(Baker)的语料库翻译研究
劳舍(Loescher)有声思维翻译过程研究




Chapter 1

奈达(Nida)的动态对等翻译理论

Dynamic Equivalence and Formal Equivalence

导读:
1.The Bible translated according to the translation principle that focuses on accuracy and literalism is not popular with the public, which becomes the reason why Nida puts forward his famous translation theory "dynamic equivalence" that the reader in the receptor language can understand and appreciate the translated text in substantially/essentially the same manner and to the same degree as the reader in the source language did.

2.Later on, he changes his "Dynamic Equivalence" into "Functional Equivalence" just so as to highlight the concept of function and get rid of people's misunderstanding of the term "dynamic" mistaken for something in the sense of impact.

3.The functional equivalence consists of two parts:
1).the minimal leve:realistic; 2).the maximum level:ideal.

4.What is dynamic equivalence?
Translation should be judged not by verbal correspondence but by seeing how the receptor reacts to the translated text.
Evaluation Standard: the acceptance of the mass

5.The translation principle of “Dynamic Equivalence” is greatly adopted in Bible Translation and has been successful. So from this aspect,“Dynamic Equivalence”is very useful and practical translation. So, dynamic equivalence can solve all the problems, and can be applied to and guide general translation Practice? Can it? Yes, or Nor? Can it? □Yes
or □No?

Newmark chooses the first item □Yes, but with reservation, because he has also his own view.
Gentzler selects the second one □No, for he has three points for his doubts:
1).Does it still work in literary translation?
2).The translated text could realy determine and reproduce the message of the original text?
3).What the reader in the receptor language gets from the translated text is really the same as what the reader in the source language gets from the original text?
Of course not. In his view, Nida’s theory functions only in translations of propaganda, advertisement or some religious materials, far away from acting as the basis for a general translation theory.
6.Questioned and challenged, Nida’s theory still has theoretical and practical value in translation studies.
7.Today we talk about the two types of equivalence and their own features. And here we also can get some information about how to evalute what a good translation is.

Principles of Correspondence (By Eugene Nida)


Because there’s no absolute correspondence, there’s also no fully exact translations.

Different Types of Translation
In order to achieve the most similar correspondence, we start with some factors that influence translations
The question that the form, the content,which is of primary consideration comes to the first.
Second, translations have diverse purposes
Third, the audiences differ both in decoding ability and in interests.

Two Basic Orientations in Translating
There are two types of equivalence: one is formal equivalence, the other is dynamic equivalence.
The formal equivalence, also called “gloss translation” when…, highlights the message itself, in both form and content. It refers to correspondence as poetry to poetry, sentence to sentence, and concept to concept.
1.The message in the receptor language should match as closely as possible the different elements in the source language.
2.the message in the receptor culture is constantly compared with the message in the source culture to determine standards of accuracy and correctness.


Gloss translation
1.the translator reproduce as literally and meaningfully as possible the form and content of the original with numerous footnotes in order to make the text fully comprehensible.
2.the reader can know and think what the original reader know and think, and understand the customes, manner of thought, and means of expressions.


The dynamic equivalence is concerned with the dynamic relationship.
1.the relationship between receptor and message should be substantially the same as that between the original receptors and the message.
2.it aims at complete naturalness of expression, and tries to relate the receptor to modes of behavior relavant within his own culture.
eg. J.B.Phillips’rendering of the New Testament
“greet one another with a holy kiss” is translated into “give one another a hearty handshake all around.”
Actually, there are a number of intervening grades between these two poles of translating (i.e. between strict form equivalence and complete dynamic equivalence)
A research shows that the present direction is towards emphasis on dynamic equvilence.



Linguistic and Cultural Distance
There are 4 types of relatedness in translating, but 3 of which is common.
1.语言、文化相近:closely related languages and cultures
eg. Frisian(a West Germanic language spoken in Friesland in the northwestern Netherlands; a near relative of English 弗里斯兰省[荷兰省名](靠近北海))→English; Hebrew(希伯来语)→Arabic
2.文化相近,语言差异性较大:Cultures are closely parallel,but languages are quite different.
eg.German→Hungarian(匈牙利语); Swedish(瑞典语)→Finish(芬兰语)
3.语言、文化差异均较大:different linguistic affiliation but also highly diverse cultures.
Englsih→Zulu; Greek→Javanese(爪哇语)
In the first case, people are likely to be deceived by the similarities between two langauges, “false friends”, which seem to be equivalent but are not always so.
eg. (Englsih)demand ←→demander(French)
In the second case, the translator is called upon to make a good many formal shifts in the translation.
In the last case, it is so pity that this one is the most difficult type to translate
Moreover,文化差异>语言结构差异


1.As to the definitions of translation, there are a variety of expressions.
Why?
①.there are vast differences in the materials translated, in the purpose of the publication, and in the needs of the 在翻译、出版前预想的audience.
②.live language are changing
③.爱好风格(stylistic preference)不断变化

2.Definitions:
Prochazka,“考查译者三个能力”:a.understand the original word thematically and stylistically
b.overcome the differences between the two linguistic structure
c.reconstruct the stylisticsstructure of the original work in his translation.


3.Jackson Mathews: to translate a poem whole is to compose another poem
Richmon Lattimore:
……
4.No matter which definitions, the tension between form and content and conflict between formal and dynamic equivalence are always there. And furthermore, the tension and conflict, in the rendering of poetry, becomes acutely present.
At to this problem, Willam A. Cooper got a good way , translation from culture to culture, to realistically deal with it. He says, “如果两种语言在构词(word formation)、修辞比喻(figure of speech)等方面绝然不同,最好的方法是‘cling to the spirit of the poem and clothe it in language and figures’”{由cling to 想到了两个汉语表达“抱定…不放”“咬定…不放”}

5.[译诗]表达形式(meter, rhythm, assoance)←→受众反应[所有翻译]
∴the ultimate purpose of the translation, in terms of (就…而言;在…方面) 对计划的读者的影响(its impact upon its intended audience), is a fundamental factor in any evaluation of translations.

6.

C.W.Orr: compare translating to painting.
Painting, “the paintor does not reproduce every detail of the landscape”
Translaing, “what the translator tries to show in his own version is not the letter, but the spirit.”

Oliver Edwards附和说,“what come to us is what the author held in his mind and heart, not what he had in his lips. ”


↗the literalness of form
The resolution of the conflict
↘the equivalence of response (▲:favor)
7.8.探讨翻译有什么特点与给翻译下定义是不同的两码事。
翻译的特点:
①Making sense
Eza Pound: translation should make sense at first
George Campbell: obscure sense is away from translation.
E.E.Milligan: argue for sense rather than words, “unless a translation communictaes, it has no reason for existence.”
②表达(coveying)原作之精神、风格(spirit and manner)【Campbell】
Bible Translator:力求反映《圣经》中每节不同作者的个人风格
Ruth M.Underhill: one can hope to make tranlstion exact only in spirit, not in letter.
Fracis Storr: the letter killeth but the spirit giveth life.这可由钦定圣经英译本与英语修定本的不同之处证明他的论点:钦定本重精神(the spirit);英语修定本重文字(the letter)(这造成了译文失去语感Sprachgefühl)。

9.话题转向:从第8段大量谈的要对原作的风格具有敏锐的感觉/悟性(sensitivity (to sth): the ability to understand art, music and literature and to express yourself through them)关联转向“自然而简单”的表达形式。【Campbell】
Max Beerbohm: 许多人把翻译剧本成英语,犯的主要错误(the cardinal fault)是未做到语言自然流利地表达。主要是他们的表达不被英国的平民百姓所用。



Definitions of Translating



1.As to the definitions of translation, there are a variety of expressions.

Why?

①.there are vast differences in the materials translated, in the purpose of the publication, and in the needs of the 在翻译、出版前预想的audience.

②.live language are changing

③.爱好风格(stylistic preference)不断变化



2.Definitions:

Prochazka[定义],“考查译者三个能力”:a.understand the original word thematically and stylistically

b.overcome the differences between the two linguistic structure

c.reconstruct the stylisticsstructure of the original work in his translation.

3.Jackson Mathews[描述]: to translate (翻译) a poem whole is to compose(创作)another poem。

Richmon Lattimore: translate Greek peom into English poem的问题。

……

4.No matter which definitions, the tension between form and content and conflict between formal and dynamic equivalence are always there. And furthermore, the tension and conflict, in the rendering of poetry, becomes acutely present.

At to this problem, Willam A. Cooper got a good way , translation from culture to culture, to realistically deal with it. He says, “如果两种语言在构词(word formation)、修辞比喻(figure of speech)等方面绝然不同,最好的方法是‘cling to the spirit of the poem and clothe it in language and figures’”{由cling to 想到了两个汉语表达“抱定…不放”“咬定…不放”}



5.[译诗]表达形式(meter, rhythm, assoance)←→受众反应[所有翻译]

∴the ultimate purpose of the translation, in terms of (就…而言;在…方面)对预期读者的影响(its impact upon its intended audience), is a fundamental factor in any evaluation of translations.



6.



C.W.Orr: compare translating to painting.

Painting, “the paintor does not reproduce every detail of the landscape”

Translaing, “what the translator tries to show in his own version is not the letter, but the spirit.”



Oliver Edwards附和说,“what come to us is what the author held in his mind and heart, not what he had in his lips. ”





↗the literalness of form

The resolution of the conflict

↘the equivalence of response (▲:favor)

7.8.探讨翻译有什么特点与给翻译下定义是不同的两码事。

翻译的特点:

①Making sense

Eza Pound: translation should make sense at first

George Campbell: obscure sense is away from translation.

E.E.Milligan: argue for sense rather than words, “unless a translation communictaes, it has no reason for existence.”

②表达(coveying)原作之精神、风格(spirit and manner)【Campbell】

Bible Translator:力求反映《圣经》中每节不同作者的个人风格

Ruth M.Underhill: one can hope to make tranlstion exact only in spirit, not in letter.

Fracis Storr: the letter killeth but the spirit giveth life.这可由钦定圣经英译本与英语修定本的不同之处证明他的论点:钦定本重精神(the spirit);英语修定本重文字(the letter)(这造成了译文失去语感Sprachgefühl)。


9.话题转向:从第8段大量谈的要对原作的风格具有敏锐的感觉/悟性(sensitivity (to sth): the ability to understand art, music and literature and to express yourself through them)关联转向“自然而简单”的表达形式。【Campbell】

Max Beerbohm: 许多人把翻译剧本成英语,犯的主要错误(the cardinal fault)是未做到语言自然流利地表达。主要是他们的表达不为英国的平民百姓所用。

Goodspeed: [Bible translating], “最好的翻译是让读者忘记这是翻译”

J.B.Phillips: “the test of a real translation is that it should not read like a translation at all.(译文读起来不是译文,{而是原文,译文有自己的生命力。})”and “a translation into English should avoid ‘translator’s Englsih.’(把一材料翻译成英语,应避免英文是译者的英文{1.不是带有翻译腔的英语,而是真正的英语;2.【拓展】译者的个人能力、水平等的不足,使译文成了带有译者个人风格,措辞,显示个人水平的译文,如今我国的翻译还基本上是停留在此水平。})”


10.翻译要做到完全自然并非易事(是极其困难的),就是因为good writing 密切地反映了(intimately reflects) and 有效地利用了(effectively exploits) the total idiomatic capacities and special genius of the language.所以,作为译者,不仅要与这些特殊困难作斗争,还要在译语中找到相对对等的表达。

Jstin O’Brien引用Raymond Guērin to the effect that: “what is the most convincing criterion of the quality of a work and the reasons?”


11.要使终端读者产生与原文读者相似的反应(similar response),an easy and natural style in translating是必不可少的。

Matthew Arnold←is opposed to →F.W.Newman (literalist)

{Matthew Arnold: “a translation should affect us in the same way as the original may be supposed to have affected its first hearers.”(影响方式相同); F.W.Newman: a literalist}


Jowett: an English translation should be idomatic(地道的) and interesting (饶有趣味的);读者要做的就是,通过译文,使他的读者获得一种感觉,而这种感觉要与原文产生的感觉一致或几近一致(similar impression)。{两种感觉要一致!}


12.Souter: 理想的翻译是“produce the same effects on the two different readers”(在两类不同的读者中求得相同的影响)


13.R.A.Knox: 原文和译文,读者读起来应有相同的兴趣点和兴奋点(the same interest and enjoyment)

Procházka: “the translation should make the same resultant impression on the reader as the original does on its reader”

14.如果一翻译要想满足下面四项基本条件,形式与内容,意义与风格之间的矛盾将越发严重进而激化,所认必须有一方得做出让步。

①making sense

②conveying the spirit and manner of the original

③having a natural and easy form of expression

④producing a similar response

一般来说,如果妥协不容乐观,meaning > style


但,我们应朝着调和两者的方向去努力(an effective blend of “matter and manner”),因为任何一篇文章中它们都是相互联系,相互影响,不可分割。{所以最理想的状态,当然应该是首先去调和两者之间的矛盾,如果有可能的话,而不是采取舍谁弃谁。因为舍形式/风格,取内容/意义,造成的结果是译文乏味平庸,原文的闪光点和魅力丧失殆尽;而取形式/风格,舍内容/意义,会造成只有感觉,而不能传达信息的结果。}


但是,形式的改变可能比内容的改变可能更要彻底(radically),并且对读者的影响上仍能大体(substantially)对等一致。因此(accordingly), 意义对等--应优先于(have priority over)--风格对等(correspondence in meaning>correspondence in style)。

得出这样的结论的同时也要注意,这种优先原则决不可机械地运用,因为毕竟最终要求的是 “再创造,而不是简单地复制”,这再诗歌翻译中,尤为突出。(what is ultimately required is a “a re-creation, not a reproduction” )


15.Is this a good translation?

从以上对翻译的各种观点看来,决定性或确定性原则(deterministic rules){或是说,统一性的?}不适用于翻译的定义和描述,而适用或然性或可能性原则(probabilistic rules)。译价译文的优劣要考虑许许多多的因素,而且反过来,这些因素又必须从多种不同侧面加以考虑和衡量(which in turn must be weighted in a number of different ways),从而得到各种不同的回答。因此,要对这个问题“Is this a good translation”进行回答,答案总会千差万别。

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