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冰冷猴?温暖猴?

作者;louie    文章点击:183

摘自Scientific American《科学美国人》2013.5.12  翻译:沈静

上个礼拜刚好遇到母亲节,这个话题算是应个景。
对母亲的爱一直被认为是自然而然的事,心理学家用猴子做实验,结果是......

1.Imagine that you’re an infant monkey and you’ve just been thrown into a cage after several hours in isolation.
假设你是一只小猴儿,隔离数小时之后刚被投进笼子里。
2.You’ve been deprived of food so you’re starving. 
你被剥夺了食物,饥饿难耐。
3.Facing you are two adult-looking (fake) monkeys designed to look like each one could potentially be your mother. 
你对面有两只假母猴,设计得很像其中任何一只都可能充当你“妈妈”的角色。


4.On the left is a“wire mother” equipped with a bottle and feeding tube so you can cling to her and fill your belly with milk. 
左边的一只是“冰冷猴”,身上挂着奶瓶和喂食管,你可以抱着她喝奶填肚子。
5.On the right is a“cloth mother” with no bottle but with a fuzzy terrycloth exterior that will allow for hours of soft warm snuggles.
右边的一直是“温暖猴”,虽然没有奶瓶,但有着毛茸茸的外面,可以让你温暖依偎......
6.You can only run to one of the monkeys. 
你只可以跑向其中一只猴妈妈。
7.Which one will you choose?
你选谁?

8. Harlow apsychologist working at the University of Wisconsin – Madison during the 1960sbelieved that there was something more important underlying our affection for Mom and Dad than our primal need to eat and survive. 
哈洛是位心理学家,威斯康星大学工作期间认为人们爱父母不只是因为“索取食物的原始需求”,还有深层次的原因。
9 .He believed that there was an additional factor: Comfort.
那就是:抚慰。

让我们继续开头的实验。

10. If the only reason why we “love” our mothers (and fathers) is based on a conditioned response to our need for food then the infant monkeys should run to the wire mothers who can feed them every time.
如果我们爱父母是基于对食物需求的条件反射,那么小猴儿每次都应该跑向那个能提够饮食的母猴。
11. Yet that’s not what happened. 
可事实并非如此。
12. Not even close.
甚至都不接近。
13. Time after time even when desperately hungry the monkeys would run over to the wire mother just long enough to fill up on milk and then dash to the cloth mother as quickly as possible to spend the next 17-18 hours snuggling into her warm comforting body.
一次又一次地,当小猴儿饥饿至极时,才会跑去冰冷猴那里,且绝不多待,吃完拔腿就跑,冲到温暖猴的怀抱,温暖地,舒服地一腻十七八个小时。


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