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霍尔亨萨尔茨堡最大的中世纪城堡

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  走进萨尔茨堡,无处不见莫扎特的踪迹。城市偎倚在白雪皑皑的阿尔卑斯山峰之间。河右岸南山坡的霍尔亨萨尔茨堡,历经900年风雨,仍巍峨挺立,它是中欧地区保存最完好、规模最大的一座中世纪城堡。

  The medieval princes' apartments and the Fortress Museum are of particular interest. Since 1892 the fortress can easily be reached by funicular railway departing from the Festungsgasse. Hohensalzburg Fortress, built in 1077 by Archbishop Gebhard, considerably enlarged by Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach .

  The Festung or Hohensalzburg Fortress, the chief landmark of Mozart's city, is the largest, fully-preserved fortress in central Europe. The more than 900-year-old citadel dates back to the investiture controversy between emperor and pope over the right to appoint the bishop. As a faithful servant of the pope, Archbishop Gerhard von Salzburg had the strongholds of Hohensalzburg, Hohenwerfen and Friesach built on his sovereign territory in 1077. Expansion of Gebhart's fortifications were temporarily completed under Konrad I .

  During the 15th and 16th centuries, during the turmoil of the so-called Hungarian War and the Peasants' War in which the province of Salzburg was involved, the archbishops took refuge behind the battlements of the fortress. It was during this period that the main building was enlarged and the arsenal and the granary erected.

  Archbishop Leonhard von Keutschach enlarged the fortress and its exterior has remained substantially unaltered since then. The fortress' interior was richly decorated: intricate Gothic wood-carvings and ornamental and coats of arms with the beetroot are commemorative of Leonhard von Keutschach. The fortress' symbol, the lion, holds the beetroot in its paws. One of the last extensive modifications was the addition of the great Kuenberg bastion.

  During its long history the Hohensalzburg Fortress has always remained unconquered by enemy troops. Having served as a fortification and temporary residence of the prince archbishops for many years, the fortress also served as military barracks and a prison. Prince Archbishop Wolf Dietrich was held captive in the fortress for five years by his nephew and successor, Markus Sittikus, up to his death in 1617.

  Today the fortress is open to the public all year round and artists from around the world meet here for courses at the International Summer Academy.

  萨尔茨堡(Salzburg)是奥地利西北部萨尔茨堡州首府,濒临多瑙河支流萨尔察赫河,是奥地利北部交通、工业及旅游中心。这里是大作曲家莫扎特的出生地,素有“音乐艺术中心”之称。

  萨尔茨堡1077年设市,公元8世纪-18世纪为天主教大主教驻地和活动中心。1802年萨尔茨堡脱离宗教统治,1809年,根据《舍恩布龙条约》归巴伐利亚,维也纳会议(1814—1815年)决定归还给奥地利。这里的建筑艺术堪与意大利的威尼斯和佛罗伦萨相媲美,有“北方罗马”之称。

  城市分布在萨尔察赫河两岸,偎倚在白雪皑皑的阿尔卑斯山峰之间。城市被苍郁的陡山围绕,充满魅力。河右岸南山坡的霍尔亨萨尔茨堡(11世纪),历经900年风雨,仍巍峨挺立,是中欧地区保存最完好、规模最大的一座中世纪城堡。


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