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“天安门”中英双语导游词,天安门英语导游词

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  题一:清明时期的天安门及天安门广场  

  各位游客大家好!
  
  现在我们所在的位置时天安门城楼上,好,就让我站在这里向大家介绍一下清明时期的天安门及天安门广场吧。
  
  天安门在明朝时称“承天门”,取意“承天启运,受命于天”之意,天安门建成于明永乐十八年,明朝末年毁于战火,到清朝重建后,改名“天安门”,取“受命于天,安邦治国”之意。
  
  天安门占地4800平方米,由城台和城楼组成,通高33.7米,在1970年重修的时候增高了1米,现在为34.7米,城台下全部是汉白玉须弥座,这是我国最高等级的基座。城楼为重檐歇山顶,顶上覆盖黄色琉璃瓦,大典的红漆玉柱有60根,地面铺的金砖由苏州、宁夏等地运来,处处显示着皇家的威严。
  
  天安门是明清两朝皇城的正门,天安门城楼的左云非常重要,明清时期凡遇皇帝登基,册立皇后,册立太子,将士出征等,都要在天安门城楼上举行隆重的颁诏礼。明代颁诏时,用一根龙头杆系彩绳顺墙而下。清代颁诏时,在天安门正中设颁诏台,宣诏后,众官员行三跪九叩礼,宣召官将诏书放在一个镀金雕云状的“朵云”盘内,然后来到城楼正中,将诏书用黄丝线悬系在一个木雕金凤的口中,金凤口衔诏书徐徐而下,好想天子帝王之命由金凤乘云朵自天空二降落到人间。礼部官员仍用朵云盘楼乘诏书,仿佛龙亭后送到礼部,由礼部将诏书印好,颁行天下。这一整个过程被称为“金凤颁诏”。
  
  请大家往城楼下看,在天安门城楼钱对着5个门洞,有5座汉白玉石桥,叫做金水桥。正中最宽的一座名为御路桥,是供皇帝出入专用的;其东西两侧的量座桥为皇族桥,是专供皇亲国戚们通行的桥;再两侧的桥为品级桥,只有三品以上的大臣才可以通过。那讲到这里可能有朋友要问了,死拼一下的官员和士兵、杂役从哪里通行呢?在太庙和社稷坛南大门前分别各有一座桥,叫公生桥,这两座桥就是专供四品一下官员、兵弁和杂役行走的通道。
  
  再来看,天安门前有两对雕刻于明永乐年间的汉白玉石狮,他们分别位于外金水河南北两岸,东侧的都是雄狮脚踏绣球,寓意一同寰宇;西侧的都是雌狮脚踩幼狮,寓意子孙绵延。两对石狮的头部都外向内侧,表示保卫御路。
  
  请大家看这个方向,有一对象石柱一样的陈设物,大家知道他们叫什么名字吗?对了,叫华表。华表在中国有这悠久的历史。相传,在原始社会的尧舜禹时代就已有此物,但是叫“诽谤木”,这诽谤木各位可别误会,这不是无限别人的意思,而是为征求民众的意见而设于路边的木桩,让百姓对官吏发辫评论,提出看法,以示居住虚心纳谏。此外,华表还曾被作为路标。随着时代的发展,这类表木举荐失去了它原来的意义和作用,演变成了一种纯粹的装饰物,成了宫殿建筑艺术的一个组成部分。天安门城楼前的这对立于明成化元年(1465)的汉白玉华表,每座华表高约10米,重达20吨。华表由三部分组成底部是围绕有护栏的八角形台座;中间柱身上雕有盘龙和朵云,柱头横插云板;顶部呈露盘上有一尊兽,俗称“望天犼”。据说这小动物非常灵异,能提醒帝王们勤政。大家看,这两只面朝南德犼是有名字的,叫“望君归”,意思是提醒皇帝不要在外面留恋青山秀水,不思国事,盼望国军早日归政,其实,在天安门城楼的北侧,也有一对这样的华表,而城楼北侧的犼是面朝北,为什么呢?因为这里的犼叫“望君出”,意思是提醒皇帝,不要沉迷于花天酒地,醉生梦死的生活,要走出宫去,去体察民情,希望国君走出去看一看。
  
  我们眼前的天安门广场,在明清时期可没有现在这么大,那时的广场石封闭的“T”字型广场,“T”字的一横就是我们今天的长安街,旧称“天街”,是颁诏是官员们跪听的地方。在天街的东边有长安左门,俗称“龙门”西边有长安右门,俗称“虎门”。“T”子的那一竖就是从现在的国旗杆钱到毛主席纪念堂的这一条长形区域,称作“御路”。在御路的东西两侧,有千步廊,是南北方向通脊联檐廊房,各110间,天街两侧各有34间,总共有288间。千步廊是在民国初年被拆除的。
  
  在广场东西两侧T形广场外事按文东武西的格局分布着当时的政府机关。东侧明代设有吏部、户部、礼部、兵部、工部、宗人府、鸿胪寺、钦天监、太医院等,清代增设了翰林院;西侧大体是武职和司法机关所在地。明代设有五军都督府、锦衣卫、太常寺等,清代改设銮仪卫、大理寺、刑部、通政司、都察院等。
  
  大家看,在现在毛主席纪念堂的位置,是明代的“大明门”,清代城“大清门”的地方。民国元年改为中华门。1958年修建天安门广场时拆除,1976年在此建造了毛主席纪念堂。
  
  在大明门的南侧,是正阳门城楼和正阳门箭楼,“正阳”二字的取“圣主当阳,日至中天,玩过瞻仰”的意思。在明清时期,正阳门还包裹瓮城、瓮城内的关帝庙和观音庙、瓮城前的正阳桥与五牌楼,他们共同构成北京内城城南一组壮观的建筑群。其中城楼高40.36米,箭楼设有箭窗94个,是内城最高大雄伟的城楼和箭楼。1900年八国联军入侵北京的时候被炮火击毁,此后分别在1901年和1960年重修正阳门城楼和正阳门箭楼。
  
  在正阳门和大明门之间,有一个小广场,被称作棋盘街。棋盘街南连正阳门,北接大明门,东、西分别通往东江米巷(东郊民巷)和江西米巷(西交民巷)。因为在明朝和清朝的时候,平民百姓是不准从皇城中间穿行的,所以棋盘街就成了当时北京东、西城老百姓来往的交通要道。
  
  以上就是我给大家介绍的昔日的天安门和天安门广场,希望我的讲解能使大家对天安门和天安门广场的过去有一点点的了解。谢谢。  

  题二:今日天安门广场  

  各位朋友大家好!
  
  现在呢,我们来到了天安门广场,我先为大家做一个简单的介绍:天安门广场时目前世界上最大的城市中心广场,他位于北京市区的中心。天安门广场呈长方形,南北长880米,东西宽500米,总面积44旺平方米。如果人们肩并肩地站在广场上,整个广场可容纳100万人。
  
  在天安门广场的四周,有很多著名的建筑,现在我为大家以顺时针方向做一个简单介绍,就让我们从广场西侧的人民大会堂开始吧!人民大会堂位于天安门广场西侧,整座建筑平面呈“山”字形,中央最高处46.5米,是现在广场中的最高建筑。整个大会堂由三部分组成:南部为全国人大常委会办公楼,其中包括以我国34个省、直辖市、自治区、特别行政区命名的会议厅。中部为万人大会堂。北端是国宴大厅,可供5000分的坐其他席宴会或1万人的酒会,是我国最大的宴会厅。整座建筑自设计到完工只用了10个月,是我国建筑史上的奇迹。
  
  在广场的北端是大家都很熟悉的天安门城楼,它是新中国的象征,就是在天安门城楼上,1949年10月1日毛主席向全世界庄严宣告,“中华人名共和国成立了!中国人民从此站起来了!”
  
  广场的东侧矗立着的是国家博物馆,总建筑面积6.9万平方米,由中国历史博物馆和中国革命博物馆两部分组成。中国国家博物馆是为庆祝中华人民共和国建国10周年而建造的背景50年代十大建筑之一,1959奶奶8月竣工。2003年2月28日,两馆合并,挂牌成立国家博物馆,馆名由江泽明同志提写。中国历史博物馆位于南半部,主要陈列是“中国通史”,时间从170旺年前的元谋人开始,直到清王朝灭亡。中国革命博物馆位于国家博物馆北半部,收藏和展览的是1840年鸦片战争以来的近代和现代文物。展品分中国革命历史和中国共产党史两大部分。
  
  好,我们再往广场的南端看,在人民英雄纪念碑的南面是毛主席纪念堂,原来在哪里曾有一座门,明代叫大明门,清代叫大清门,民国时又改为中华门,解放后拆除。1976年毛主席逝世后在其基址上建起了庄严肃穆的毛主席纪念堂。纪念堂建成于1977年,用时仅6个月,于1977年9月9日毛主席逝世周年时正式对外开放。毛主席纪念堂总建筑面积2.8万平方米,全楼共两层,一楼分为三个部分:北大厅是举行纪念活动的场所,大厅中央为汉白玉雕刻的3米多高的毛主席坐像,坐像背后的墙上悬挂一幅描绘祖国山河的巨型绒绣。纪念堂的核心部分是瞻仰堂,正中安防着黑色花岗岩棺床,棺床上的水晶棺中安放着毛主席遗体,遗体上覆盖中国共产党党旗,供人们凭吊、瞻仰、表达深深地敬意。南大厅别面的汉白玉墙壁上,镌刻着毛泽东手书体的诗词《满江红和郭沫若同志》。纪念堂耳聋为毛泽东、刘少奇、周恩来、朱德、邓小平等老一辈无产阶级革命家的纪念室。
  
  广场的正中,巍巍耸立着中国第一碑--人民英雄纪念碑。他是为纪念自1840年至解放战争期间,在反对国内外名族解放和人民自由幸福的历次斗争中牺牲了的人民英雄而建立的,也是中国自古以来规模最大的纪念碑。纪念碑通高约38米,分为三个部分:碑顶、碑身、碑座。碑顶是中国传统的建筑形式盝顶。碑身由413块花岗岩垒砌成,分为正面和背面。正面是朝北的一面,上面刻有“人民英雄永垂不朽”八个字,为毛泽东题写;背面是抄南德一面,碑文是由毛泽东撰写,周恩来手书,内容是:“三年以来在人民解放战争和人民革命中牺牲的人民英雄永垂不朽!由此上溯到一千八百四十年从那时起为了反对内外敌人争取民族独立和人民自由幸福的历次斗争中牺牲的人民英雄们永垂不朽!”碑文以紫铜为胎,用黄金130两镶嵌在花岗岩碑芯上,碑芯14.7米高,重达60多吨。
  
  碑座由两层月台和两层须弥座构成,下层须弥座四周镶嵌着10幅汉白玉浮雕,从纪念碑的东侧开始,内容按历史顺序依次为:“虎门销烟”、“金田起义”、“武昌起义”、“五四运动”、“五卅运动”、“南昌起义”、“抗日战争”、“胜利渡江”。在“胜利渡江”的两侧有两块装饰性浮雕,内容为“支援前线”和“欢迎人民解放军”。全部浮雕共有180个人物,概括了我国100多年的历史。上层小须弥座四周雕刻有由牡丹、荷花、菊花、百合花组成的8个花圈。
  
  天安门广场时中国近代革命的见证人,反帝反封建的五四运动、“三一八惨案”、“一二九运动”都发生在这里。天安门广场也是新中国诞生的见证人,更是今天人民幸福生活的见证人。现在,它已被全国人民评为“中国第一景”,每天都有来自海内外的朋友们到此参观游览。
  
  各位朋友,我们现在来到国旗杆前,大家应该知道,天安门广场每天都有升降旗仪式,自从我国于1991年颁布了《国旗法》后,仪式有了新的规定,分为平日和节日两种。逢国家重要庆典或每月1日举行节日升(降)旗仪式。届时升旗现场都有军乐队员现场演奏国歌,国旗护卫队和军乐队共有官兵96人,象征捍卫祖国960万平方公里的土地。整个升旗的过程持续2分零7秒,奏3遍国歌。平日升降旗仪式只有36名国旗护卫队官员执行仪仗任务,仪式进行时播放国歌录音。那可能有人会问了,每天的升降旗时间是怎么解决的呢?其实,国旗升降时间是依据每天日出和日落时间来确定的。每天早晨,当太阳的上部边缘与天安门广场的地平线相切时,就是升旗的时间;到了傍晚,当太阳的上部边缘与天安门广场的地平线相切时,就是降旗的时间。
  
  这里是在天安门前留影的最佳地点,请各位拍下这难忘的一刻,好,朋友们,天安门及广场,我就讲到这里,请各位自由参观,30分钟后我们在纪念碑北侧集合,谢谢。
  
  英文范例
  
  题一:Tian'anmen Rostrum and Square during the Ming and Qing Dynasties
  
  (明清时期天安门和天安门广场)
  

  Ladies and gentlemen:
  
  We will visit Tian'anmen Rostrum and square. First, please follow me to see the Tian'anmen Rostrum.
  
  Tian'anmen or the Gate of Heavenly Peace is located in the center of Beijing. It was first built in 1417 and was originally called the Gate of Heavenly Succession, which served as the main entrance to the main entrance to the former Imperial City. At the end of the Ming dynasty in 1644, it was seriously damaged in a war. When it was rebuilt in 1651 in the Qing dynasty, the name was changed to Tian'anmen.
  
  Tian'anmen Rostrum is 34. 7meters high with glistering yellow glazed tiles on the roof. Chairman Mao's portrait is hung above the central entrance; there are two slogans on each side. (One is:“Long live the Peopele's Republic of China.”The other one is:“Long Live the Great Unify of the People of Word.”
  
  It has five passages, during the Ming and Qing dynasties; the passage in the middle was especially reserved of the emperor himself. The emperor went through the central passage on the way to the altars and temples for ritual and some other religious activities.
  
  During the Ming and Qing dynasties, Tian'anmen Rostrum was the place where the important state ceremonies took place, the most famous “Imperial Edict Issused by Golden Phoenix” was held on the tower.
  
  In front of the Tian'anmen Rostrum is Outer Golden River. Spanning over the Golden River are seven arched stone bridges, knows the Golden Water Bridges. (The middle one was for the emperor only so it was called Imperial Bridge. The two bridges on each side were used by royal family members; they were called Royal's Bridges. The two bridges farther out were Ranking Bridges for the civil and military officials above the third rank. The remaining two bridges in front of the Zhongshan Park to the west and the Working People's Cultural Bridges.)
  
  The two pairs of stone lions by the Gate of Tian'anmen served as guardians in the old days. A pair of marble columns standing in front of Tian'anmen Rostrum is made of white marble, sculptured with dragon design. Behind the rostrum stands another pair of marble columns. In Chinese they are called “Huabiao”。 On the top of the Huabiao, a stone mythical animal squatting on the top is called “Hou”。 The pair of animals facing south were given the name “Wangjungui”, in English:“Expecting the emperor's coming back”。(which means whenever the emperor stayed too long outside , it would warn the emperor should not to stay away too long outside. Hurry back and take care of the state affairs, we were looking forward to your return.) Another pair of stone animals on Huabiao facing to the Forbidden City was given the name “Wangjunchu”, in English “Expecting the emperor's going out”。 (Which means the emperor not to spend the luxury life in the imperial palace, he should come out and get to know the sufferings of the common people.)
  
  Tian'anmen Square is situated south of Tian'anmen Rostrum, 880 meters long from north to south and 500 meters wide from east to west, with a total area of 44 hectares. Tiananmen Square is the largest city center square in the world. The square has witnessed many historical events, such as :“The December 9th Student'Movement” in 1935 and the ceremony of the founding of the People's Republic of China on October 1st in 1949.
  
  During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, Tian'anmen Square used to be a “T” shaped square. It was surrounded by a red wall. At that time, the offices, located on the west, were for the military officers and the offices for the civil officials were on the east. In the early days of the Ming Dynasty, a gate was built right on the present side of the Chairman Mao's Mausoleum and it was called “the Gate of Great Ming”,served as the south gate of the imperial city. It was changed into “the Gate of Great Qing” in the Qing Dynasty. And it was again renamed as “the Gate of China” in 1912. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, there were two more gates built on Chang'an Avenue. The one on the west was called “the Right Gate of Chang'an Avenue” which was for the criminals, also called “Tiger Gate”。 The gate on the east was called “the Left Gate of Chang'an Avenue” for those scholars who passed the Palace Examination, it was also called “Dragon Gate”。 Along the central axis in the center of the square was the Imperial Road. The Thousand-step corridor on both sides of the road and some parts at the Chang'an Avenue, respectively towards Tiger Gate and Dragon Gate, altogether 288 rooms.
  
  Zheng Yang Gate is located  at the south part of the square which also knows as the “Front Gate ”。 It was one of the nine city gates in the old city of Beijing and was first built in 1420 in the early Ming Dynasty. It was renovated and rebuilt several times during the Ming and Qing Dynasties. The tower in front of the gate is the Arrow Tower(Jianlou)。 Originally, the gate and the tower were connected by two walls, on both sides which look like a jar shape, so it was also called Jar City.
  
  The space between the Front City Gate and the Gate of Great Ming was a small square with the streets designed in a “cross” pattern, so the square was nicknamed “Chess-board Street”。 There used to be some temples built for people to worship. During the Ming and Qing Dynasty the common people were not allowed to walk through the Imperial City. So the “Chess-board” street became an important line of communication and thoroughfare for the residents pass from east to west.
  
  This is the introduction of Tian'anmen Rostrum and Tian'anmen Square during the past time. I hope it can help you to have a better understanding of this place. Thank you.  
  题二:Tian'anmen Rostrum and Square today
  
  (今日天安门广场)
  
  Tian'anmen Square is situated of Tian'anmen Rostrum , 880 meters long from north to south and 500 meters wide from east to west, with a total area of 44 hectares (109acres)。 It can hold half a million people, but once it accommodated city center square in the world. The square has witnessed many historical events, such as :“The May 4th movement in 1919”,“The March 18th Massacre” in 1926 and “The December 9th students' Movement” in 1935.
  
  Tian'anmen square was enlarged in the 1950s and some important buildings were also built on the square. Along the central axis from north to south, first we can see the National Flagpole. It is made of 4 seamless steel tubes, 32. 6meters high, and 7 tons in weight, which will not get rusty for 20 years. The national flag with five yellow stars flutters on the flagpole. Since May 1st in 1991, we have the flag-raising ceremony every day at sunrise in the morning and we also have the flag-lowering ceremony every day at sunset. On the 1st day of the month and other important dates for national ceremonies, we hold a special holiday ceremony. During the ceremony, there are 36 guards of honor with 60 guards of military band behind, making up 96 guards altogether, march along the north-south axis towards the flagpole. The number 96 signifies the territory of China, which has 9.6 million square kilometers in area. While for other events, an ordinary ceremony is held by a tape recording.
  
  The Monument to the People's Heroes stands in the center of the square. It was built in 1952 and was completed in 1958. In order to commemorate the people's heroes who laid down their lives in the course of the Chinese revolution and the Chinese liberation. It is 38 meters high with 17,000 pieces of granite and white marble on the base. The obelisk is 14.7 meters high that consists of 413 pieces of granite, and 2.9 meters wide, 1meter thick, 60tons in weight.
  
  On the front side of the monument, there is an engraved inscription in Chinese characters written by our late Chairman Maozedong : “Eternal Glory to the People's Heroes!” On the back of monument is an article also written by Chairman Mao. But the calligraphy was written by our late Premier Zhou enlai. Under the obelisk are the two-layered bases of the monument. The bottom layer is inlaid with ten pieces of white marble relieves.
  
  Chairman Mao's Mausoleum located south of the Monument to the People's Heroes, it was built in November 1976 and was completed in May 1977. It was officially opened to the public on September 9th, 1977, just one year after his death. It occupies a total floor space of 28,00square meters. There are three main halls inside the mausoleum.
  
  On the west of the square is the Great Hall of the People , it was built in 1958 and was completed in1958. It occupies a total floor space of over 170,000 square meters. The highest point of this building is 46.5 meters high in the center with a big national emblem hanging in the middle. The building consists of three parts: the 10,000-seat Grand Auditorium, the Banquet Hall with 5,000 Seating capacity and the Offices for the Standing Committee of the National people's Congress and thirty-four Reception Halls.
  
  On the east of the square is the National museum which formerly called the Museum of the Chinese History and the Museum of the Chinese Revolution. 300,000 pieces of Chinese history form 1.7million years ago to 1919. The Museum of the Chinese Revolution covers the period from 1919 to 1949. The present name was given in 2003.
  
  Today, Tian'anmen  Square attracts millions of people from all over the world every year. So the square is always full of tourists who are busy taking pictures. Today, Tian'anmen Square is a place for celebrations during important festive occasions and some important state celebrations.

 

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